Study in Germany
PhD in Germany
The German doctorate enjoys an outstanding reputation in all disciplines, with the country producing about 25,000 doctorates every year. The number of foreign students registering themselves for a PhD has more than doubled in the last 12 years to over 18,000.
There are very good reasons for this. These include among others International Degree Programmes (IDP) taught in English medium, excellent quality of education, no tuition fees, promising career opportunities and above all the vibrant social and cultural milieu.
What is the German university system like?
There are various kinds of institutions of higher education in Germany. A majority of these belong to either of the following categories:
Universities (including Universities of Technology, abbr. TU) are research-oriented and offer a wide variety of subjects. These can award doctorate degrees.
Universities of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschulen, abbr. FH), on the other hand, are practice-oriented and offer courses mainly in engineering, business administration, social sciences and design. These have strong links to the industry and offer possibilities like joint supervision of the professor and a company for a master thesis, but do not award doctorate degrees. As a master degree holder from a Fachhochschule, one is in principle eligible to apply for a doctoral position at a University.
Where can I do my doctorate?
If you have set your mind on a PhD in Germany, you can consider two approaches: the traditional approach and the structured doctoral programmes.
- Individual doctoral studies involve identifying a supervisor (Doktorvater / Doktormutter) at a German University who is willing to guide your research. This system offers a lot of freedom, and calls for a great deal of personal initiative right from identifying a topic in your research field. This kind of doctorate takes about 3-5 years to complete.
- Structured doctoral programmes are internationally oriented, conducted largely in English and are comparable to PhD programmes offered in English-speaking countries. Here supervision is carried out by several university teachers. These programmes lead to a PhD in about three years. There are over 600 structured programmes in Germany.
Which is the best university in Germany?
Germany offers a multidimensional ranking , considering various criteria that are important from a student’s perspective. For example, student and staff judgments on quality of teaching, atmosphere at the university, library and other equipment, student numbers, average study duration, number of graduations, third party funding etc. You thus get a detailed picture of the strengths and weaknesses of each university on www.university-ranking.de Here you can find your programme by selecting a subject, a university or even a city in Germany!
Am I eligible to apply for a PhD?
In Germany, every university is autonomous. This means that every university / study programme has its own set of criteria for admitting students. So please check the university website, and specifically the programme you are interested in to find out the exact admission requirements.
Some generalisation is however possible and one can say that as a Master degree holder from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal or Sri Lanka your degree is treated at par with a German Master or Magister degree. In some cases, further assessment of eligibility will be required. It is advised that you clarify the matter of eligibility with the university or the research organisation of your choice before you send in your application.
Some universities may ask for the proof of your English language proficiency in form of TOEFL or IELTS scores, while most universities will ask for very good German language skills in case you have to write your thesis in German. In such cases, your knowledge of German needs to be certified through examinations like the TestDaF or DSH.
How do I go about applying?
- Decide which field of research you want to pursue and shortlist potential universities and professors if you want to follow the traditional approach or the appropriate structured doctoral programme.
- A good place to start is www.research-explorer.de
An online portal www.phdgermany.de where German universities can advertise openings for doctoral positions and where students can also apply online is worth a visit.
Academicians from your country who have collaborations with German academicians or your seniors who might be carrying out research in Germany can be a great source of information too!
I. Traditional Approach
- Contact and convince a supervisor. Make sure that you approach a potential supervisor the right way and in good time – a brief and well-structured communication with an overview of your research proposal and relevant information about yourself is more likely to get you the right kind of response than a simple email stating that you are interested in doing a PhD! Communicate information about your background, academic performance and academic goals.
- Get a letter of acceptance from your supervisor.
II. Structured doctoral programme
- Identify a programme. Contact the selected university. This will be your most important source of information as far as exact details about eligibility, programme structure, fee, application procedure etc. are concerned.
- Check the application deadline for the programme chosen!
Application forms and other relevant material can be downloaded from the respective university website.
- Send the application packet.
- Get a confirmation of admission.
- The Admission procedures vary for different universities and for different programmes.
- Check about these with the university of your choice or your supervisor.
- Make sure you have a valid passport!
- Apply for a student visa as soon as you have the admission letter, as the procedure can take 8 to 12 weeks. The German Embassy and the Consulates require proof of funding for the first year of studies. To find out where you should apply for a visa, visit the website of the Germany Embassy in your country.
- Apply for a place in a hostel. In some cases the International Office (Akademisches Auslandsamt) of the university will help you.
- Arrive in Germany at least a week before your course begins.
- Contact the International Office (Akademisches Auslandsamt) of your university for guidance.
- Get your residence permit within the first three months of your stay in Germany from the Foreigners' Registration Office (Auslaenderamt).
Do I need to know German?
As you have already seen, Germany offers numerous PhD programmes with English as the sole or primary medium of instruction and the language for your thesis.
But as a student in Germany, your life will not be limited to the university campus. You will surely want to interact with people, travel through the country-side and make the best of your time there. This is where knowledge of German will present a great advantage!
Universities offer beginner and well as advanced level courses where you can learn German. You can also start learning the language while you are still in your home country at a Goethe-Institut (Max Mueller Bhavan) / Goethe-Zentrum.
What kind of budget should I have in my mind?
As a doctoral students you are expected to pay special semester contribution of around Euro 250, depending upon the university and the services or benefits provided. Doctoral students are generally exempted from paying tuition fees for the first six semesters. Thus in Germany virtually every doctoral student gets a scholarship!
Apart from the semester contribution, you will require about Euro 670 per month for subsistence i.e. housing, food, clothing, study material and other expenses such as health insurance and leisure activities. This amount can vary from city to city, and of course from lifestyle to lifestyle!
How can I finance my doctorate?
If you are participating in a structured doctoral programme and doing your doctorate at a graduate school, research centre or research training group, the issue of funding is usually resolved with you either working as a research assistant or receiving a scholarship of about Euro 1,000 per month.
If you are pursuing your doctorate on the basis of the traditional approach, you can apply for a job as a research assistant, if there is vacancy.
Working as a research/doctoral assistant involves collaboration in research/teaching and doing administrative work in addition to completing the dissertation. Non-university research institutions like Fraunhofer Institutes and also some companies offer doctoral candidates employment and / or fund their doctoral dissertations.
The DAAD offers the most extensive scholarship programme. Also a number of foundations support international candidates approved for the doctoral process. A database of scholarships offered by various German organizations can be found at www.funding-guide.de
What is a DAAD Scholarship like and how can I apply for it?
- Collect general information about DAAD scholarships.
- Thoroughly check the eligibility criteria.
- Attend information sessions or internet-based seminars (webinars) organised by the DAAD!
- Once you have the letter of acceptance from your supervisor/admission letter from your university, check application details and complete the procedure.
- The application deadline is around the 1st of October the current year for a PhD beginning in the next year. The exact date varies depending upon your country of origin.
- Shortlisted applicants from Bangladesh and India will be invited for a personal interview.
The final decision will be announced for applicants from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka around March/April of the following year.
- Once selected, you will have to attend a mandatory German language course, which is a necessary and important part of your scholarship.
- After the successful completion of your language course in Germany, your PhD will begin in October.
Can I work in Germany – as a student and later as a professional?
As an international student, you are permitted to work for 120 full days or 240 half days in a year. This will help you in getting a bit of extra pocket-money!
After completing your degree in Germany, you can stay on in the country for up to 1.5 years to look for a job that is in keeping with your education. Once you find a job, the residence permit issued to you for the purpose of studying, can be converted into a residence permit for taking gainful employment.
Germany has always had a very strong industry-academia linkage. A lot of scientific research is funded by the industry as well. During your studies you can get the opportunity to do internships with German companies, which can open new vistas for your professional career.
In Germany, a doctorate is a prerequisite for a career in research or higher education.
Your options include:
Research Positions in Industry
The portal www.academics.com has Germany's biggest online job market for researchers.
There are also scholarships for Postdocs offered by the Alexander-von-Humboldt Foundation and other organizations.
You can find some useful information on www.research-in-germany.de.
If you want to know more about universities and student life or read what other international students have to say about Germany, check out the DAAD Young Ambassadors page.